First, list all block devices with an identifier for their PCI device.

ls -al /sys/block/sd*
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Sep  6 10:01 /sys/block/sda -> ../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1f.2/ata3/host2/target2:0:0/2:0:0:0/block/sda
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Sep  6 10:01 /sys/block/sdb -> ../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1f.2/ata3/host2/target2:0:1/2:0:1:0/block/sdb
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Sep  6 10:01 /sys/block/sdc -> ../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1f.2/ata4/host3/target3:0:0/3:0:0:0/block/sdc
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Sep  6 10:01 /sys/block/sdd -> ../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1f.2/ata4/host3/target3:0:1/3:0:1:0/block/sdd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Sep  6 10:01 /sys/block/sde -> ../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:05:05.0/ata5/host4/target4:0:0/4:0:0:0/block/sde
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Sep  6 10:04 /sys/block/sdf -> ../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:05:05.0/ata8/host7/target7:0:0/7:0:0:0/block/sdf

Note above that several disks are attached to pci0000:00/0000:00:1f.2.

So what does that get us? Well, if you run lspci with no arguments, you will realize that the PCI ids listed by lspci correspond to the PCI ids output by the ls command above.

The qualifying aspect here is 1f.2. Let's use lspci to determine which controller that is.

lspci | grep -i 1f.2
00:1f.2 IDE interface: Intel Corporation NM10/ICH7 Family SATA Controller [IDE mode] (rev 01)

Ah, yes. I know that the Intel SATA controller would be the one on my motherboard, as opposed to the secondary SATA card I have installed.

What about the disks connected to pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0? That should be my secondary SATA card, right?

Let's run the same lspci command above, but using 1e.0 to confirm.

lspci | grep -i 1e.0
00:1e.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801 PCI Bridge (rev e1)

PCI Bridge. Ah, that's showing us the lspci entry for the PCI bridge itself, now for the SATA controller.

Let's look at the original output of ls -al /sys/block/sd* again.

There is a bit more specificity after pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0. Note the last bit after the last / here. pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:05:05.0. Let's search for that last qualifier.

lspci | grep -i 05.0
05:05.0 RAID bus controller: Silicon Image, Inc. SiI 3114 [SATALink/SATARaid] Serial ATA Controller (rev 02)

There we go! That's the other SATA controller.

This will allow us to se all disks connected to that secondary SATA controller.

ls -al /sys/block/sd* | grep -i '05:05.0'

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Sep  6 10:20 /sys/block/sde -> ../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:05:05.0/ata5/host4/target4:0:0/4:0:0:0/block/sde
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Sep  6 10:20 /sys/block/sdf -> ../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:05:05.0/ata8/host7/target7:0:0/7:0:0:0/block/sdf

sde and sdf are the two disks on that controller. Good to know!

You can see how, based on a name like SiI 3114, you could find all devices. First, get the PCI id with lspci, then use the other commands to get the devices.